כובע יהודי בימי הביניים באוגסבורג

September 30, 2015

כובע יהודי בימי הביניים באוגסבורג

Judenhut Augsburg Jewish Hat Yehuda Shenef

قبعة اليهودية في العصور الوسطى اوغسبورغ

Mittelalterlicher Judenhut in Augsburg

medieval Jewish hat in Augsburg


Judenhut

May 31, 2012

Since the weather in Germany becomes more warm and pleasant meanwhile it is possible to wear the Judenhut (Jews hat) again …

 (c) יהודה שנף

 


“… die Juden in Augsburg zu kennzeichnen mit einem gelben Ring…”

September 23, 2009

Gelber Ring als Kennzeichen an Autos

Gelber Ring als Kennzeichen an Autos

Am 23. September 1434, d.h. heute vor exakt 575 Jahren wurde mit kaiserlicher Genehmigung den Juden in Augsburg verordnet, an ihrer Kleidung einen übergroßen gelben Ring zu tragen:

“… die Juden hie zu Augsburg ze bezaichnen mit ainem gelben Ring, der einer spann weyt und ein völligen Dumen breit brait sey …”

und zwar

” … uff daz claid, ez sy mantel oder Rogg ze nayen und nit ze bedecken …”

Dies galt auch für auswärtige Juden, die in die Stadt kamen, aus welchen Gründen auch immer.

Wer als Jude dagegen verstieß, hatte 3 Gulden zu bezahlen, was der mehrfachen Jahressteuer pro Kopf entsprach und für einen Monat die Stadt zu verlassen, was bei ungüstiger Witterung einem wahrscheinlichen Tod gleichkommen konnte.

 

at the former Judenwall in Augsburg

at the former Judenwall in Augsburg

Is it possible to clarify and study a subject as the yellow badge or ring by varying it by relating or misrelating de/”contextualize”) a former function which today only is known as symbol hinting at a much newer one …

yellow badge with Augsburg landmark Perlach Tower

yellow badge with Augsburg landmark Perlach Tower

There are many open questions: Is the design of prohibition signs influenced by a (yellow) ring:

 

 

Was there ever an option? Gab es jemals es eine Wahl?

cast your vote

cast your vote


Rediscovering the Jewish hat in Augsburg

August 3, 2009

Judenhut

Judenhut

The so called Jewish Hat or ~ Cap (in French chapeau juif or coiffe juive) initially was no major matter. It’s use was to indicate a rabbi or any chairperson of a Jewish community, as well explained in various regulations and contemporary illustrations. It is comparable with the equally outstanding hat of a Christian bishop – and thus rabbis in German texts of the Middle Ages have been often referred as “Jews Bishop”. In Augsburg’s mediaeval municipal law from 1276 there is no other obligation to wear a such hat but for the seller at the Jewish meat counter as a representative of the Jewish community relevant. Despite the precise function of the Jews hat as a token or attribute of official power there also was a second quite different more symbolic use by gentiles as an identifier sign for Jews. Examples are many standardizing illustrations defining Jews by the Jews hat or by an yellow badge or ring. In Augsburg there are some very prominent interpretations as for example a detail of a fresco at the Hirn Chapel of St. Anna and of course still more the  famous stained-glass windows depicting King David and four Hebrew prophets Moses, Jonah, Daniel and Hosea of the Augsburg cathedral window series.

a once officially approved protective helmet

a once officially approved protective helmet

The obligation to wear a badge in Augsburg was introduced as late as September 1434 – the jhva of course will mark the date.